Sustainable Development and Wild Nature Conservation in NICARAGUA
Conservation Science Research
Raptor migration is a spectacle, involving tens of thousands of birds passing overhead in file, covering
hundreds of miles a week in their daily journeys. How, where, and when raptors migrate is also of importance to scientists and
conservation professionals. In Nicaragua, coming and already implemented projects in wind-energy generation will need good data on
raptor migration patterns
to prevent unnecessary kills in the placement and operation of windmills. GAIA
has maintained raptor migration monitoring
during the fall (southward) migration season since 2001. More recently, we have begun to observe the northward migration as well.
Important populations of migratory birds pass through Nicaragua, such as Broad-winged Hawks, Swainson's Hawks, Cooper Hawks, Turkey
Vultures, Mississippi Kites, Ospreys and Peregrine Falcons. Birds of some of these species may reside in Nicaragua over the winter period and fly northward
each spring. GAIA scientists have published two important scientific papers on raptor migration through Nicaragua, documenting
a major southward migration route and the participation of several lesser-known raptor species in migration, particularly the Black
Vulture (Coragyps atratus). The first reports in Nicaragua of two species, the Eastern Flycatcher (Tyrannus tyrannus) and Cooper's Hawk
(Accipiter cooperi) were made based on these studies.
Relevant publications involving GAIA research on raptor migration:
McCrary JK, Young Jr. DP (2008): New and noteworthy
observations of raptors in southward migration in Nicargua. Ornitología Neotropical 19:573-580.
Arengi J, McCrary J (2004): Raptor migration monitoring in Nicaragua.
Hawk Migration Studies 29:20-25
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