Biodiversity and Ecology of Birds in Nicaragua


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Gaia researchers have participated in numerous bird studies throughout Nicaragua. The following list demonstrates the relevant peer-reviewed scientific publications regarding birds in which Gaia staff are co-authors.

Relevant publications involving GAIA-sponsored research on birds:

McCrary JK, Young Jr. DP (2008): New and noteworthy observations of raptors in southward migration in Nicargua. Ornitología Neotropical 19:573-580.

McCrary JK, Gates JE (2007): Evidences of brood parasitism of Giant Cowbird (Molothrus oryzivorus) on Spot-breasted (Icterus pectoralis) and Streaked-backed (Icterus pustulatus) Orioles. Ornitología Neotropical 18:111-115.

McCrary JK, Arendt WJ, Morales S, Arengi JT, López LJ (2008): New avian sight records for Nicaragua, with notes on abundance, distribution and habitat use. Cotinga 29:102-107

McCrary JK, Arendt WJ, Chavarría L, López LJ, Somarriba PA, Boudrault P-O, Cruz AL, Muñoz FJ, Mackler DG (2009): A contribution to Nicaraguan ornithology, with a focus on the pine–oak ecoregion. Cotinga 31:89-95.

Arengi J, McCrary JK (2004): Raptor Migration Monitoring in Nicaragua. Hawk Migration Studies 29:20-25.

You can help us keep nature wild in Nicaragua, by volunteering your time with us or making a small donation to support our projects in wild nature conservation.

Bird studies in Laguna de Apoyo Nature Reserve, Nicaragua

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The Chestnut-capped Warbler (Basileuterus delattrii) was recently awarded species status. It is one of the few warbler species resident year-round in Nicaragua. Photo Vera Neumann.


Proyecto Ecológico

Bird populations are monitored in Laguna de Apoyo Nature Reserve by the staff, scientific interns, and volunteers of Estación Biológica Laguna de Apoyo. Photo Joe Taylor.


raptor migration

Gaia Program experts support wildlife studies important to the economy of Nicaragua, such as the impacts of windmills on wildlife. A major wind farm in Rivas is located along an important bird migration corridor. Photo Pablo Somarriba.



Field research is conducted on several animal and plant groups at Estación Biológica Laguna de Apoyo. Photo Jeffrey McCrary.


wildlife Nicaragua

Field identification of the reptiles of Laguna de Apoyo Nature Reserve. Photo Kolby Kirk.



The forest inside the crater in Laguna de Apoyo Nature Reserve contains dozens of terrestrial reptile species, making the area an appropriate site for wildlife studies. Photo Jeffrey McCrary.



Gaia supports studies of the butterflies and moths of Laguna de Apoyo Nature Reserve, with two scientific publications on the subject. Photo Aura Cruz.



The brown vine snake Oxybelis aeneus is among the diverse wildlife of Laguna de Apoyo Nature Reserve. Photo Lewis Honor.